Tuesday, May 26, 2020
Ambassador Scholarship Essay Samples - an in Depth Anaylsis on What Works and What Doesn't The Awful Secret of Ambassador Scholarship Essay Samples Your financial need essay should offer exhaustive explanations why money needs to be offered to you. Frequently, candidates believe that it's no use mentioning the social work and activities they've been involved in. Keep in mind, on the exterior of the envelope, list the name of the particular scholarship you're inquiring about. The scholarships you find are likely to fit into specific themes that you must have the ability to identify to be able to save your family time, frustration, stress, and most of all money. College funding is a complex procedure and it's easy to feel overwhelmed. You might take a look at our Essay Outline Template to steer you in the introduction of such document. Detail what steps which you have already taken to cover your education, such as 529 Savings Plan. Scholarship is something which you're award ed in place of the acceptance of your brilliant work. The 30-Second Trick for Ambassador Scholarship Essay Samples Scholarships have become more difficult to compete for due to the economy and the amount of individuals seeking to further their education. Especially, write the way the scholarship will be able to help you continue your education including the financial conditions of your family members and how you'll have the ability to help them as well. Some scholarships will just request a statement of financial need. Apply for as many scholarships as you can. Students sometimes also look for scholarship to get financial aid. Scholarships exist to additional society and make us a much better species overall. College student scholarships can be found in a variety of categories and field to coincide with the requirements of all who need financial support. If you're accepted, you're learn by June 1st, 2011. Being invited for a scholarship application is an awesome experience that's why you ought to make the absolute most out of it. It's important to get some evidence of community service in your region. The Advantages of Ambassador Scholarship Essay Samples Besides this, you can write in your essay about leadership abilities and qualities you have. The trick is to compose your scholarship statement from the heart and allow it to be alive. When the definition is supplied, one ought to inspect the characteristics that help recognize the individual as an excellent leader. Moreover, one is a 500-word reply and the other one is a 1,000- word reaction. What's Really Happening with Ambassador Scholarship Essay Samples Writing the scholarship essay may look to be an impossible job, but with a little bit of hard work and the above methods to guide you, you may make a well-written essay that lets the judges know what a distinctive individual you're. Unfortunately, the quantity of students who write financial need essays is pretty large, and you're going to be writing your essay along with a number of other applicants. You don't need to possess the ideal writing skills as a way to be creative and compose an effective essay. While writing scholarship essays, students will need to think about some vital points. Touch on the main characteristics of your essay then leave the reader with something to consider. If you discover that it's challenging to compose essays, consider discussing the essay topic whilst recording the conversation. Instead, utilize the vocabulary that you're most comfortable with. Possessing another individual reading the essay is critical. There are various ways to begin an essay and all you have to do is to use one that can supply the most positive impact to the folks who will review your scholarship essay. At times you'll discover that isn't always possible, but if you see part of your essay that may be revised using fewer words, it's always recommended. The secret to writing a great essay is to allow it to be interesting, and the secret to that is to write about something you're passionate about. Revise The secret to crafting a well-written essay is to demonstrate the judges as an alternative to telling them. Highlight what you've learned and how you're applying the learning. Wait until the day prior to your scholarship application is due to start drafting your essay. You will discover that when you have seen one or two applications, you've pretty much seen all of them. Your application needs to be typewritten and neat. The letter may be general request for information form letter that could be photocopied, but you ought to be specific concerning the name of the scholarship you're inquiring about on the envelope. There are various letter documents and essay examples that are employed in the business of education. If you still don't know what things to put in your essay, application or cover letter, you can find a number of scholarship essay format templates online. Writing financial need essays can be part of the application procedure.
Friday, May 15, 2020
The History of Greek Architecture The architecture of ancient Greece is represented by buildings in the sanctuaries and cities of mainland Greece, the Aegean islands, southern Italy and Sicily, and the Ionian coast of Turkey. Monumental Greek architecture began in the archaic period, flourished through the classical and Hellenistic periods, and saw the first of many revivals during the Roman Empire. The roots of Greek architecture lie in the tradition of local Bronze Age house and palaces. The following paper will cover the basic forms of Greek architecture. One of the many types of Greek building structures was Sacred Architecture. The Greeks conceived of their gods in human form, as anthropomorphicÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This era brought about the introduction of both the Doric and Ionic Orders. The Doric Order, which originated around 400 BCE brought rise to a whole new type of building technique and style. In the archaic temples, stone gradually started to replace wood, and some of the structural details of the early buildings appear to have been copied in stone. At Thermon, in northwestern Greece, a succession of buildings from the Last Bronze Age throughout the sixth century BCE show the evolution of the Doric temple from a hall shaped like a hairpin to a long rectangular building with a porch at either end and surrounded by columns. The temple of Hera at Olympia, built about 600 BCE, had wooden columns that were gradually replaced by stone ones, probably as votive gifts. The variety of column and capital shapes illustrates the evolution of the Doric order. The earliest columns had a heavy, bulging profile, and their capitals were broad and low. During the archaic period, limestone became the standard building material for foundations, steps, walls, columns, and Doric entablature. Building such as the famous Temple of Aphaia on Aegina illustrate the dramatic influence of the Doric order. White the Doric order became the standard for mainland Greece, the Ionian colonies in the eastern Aegean were developing a very different system of columns and entablature based on Egyptian and Near Eastern architecture. The tall slender columns, low entablature, andShow MoreRelatedHistory Of Roman And Greek Architecture1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesRoman and Greek architecture is something to be revered. It is fascinating that people lacking the advanced technology we have today could create monuments of such magnitude and perfection. Commonly, these temples were built to worship and honor deities, and so they must be built pristine. Although the Romans sometimes cut corners when it came to materials in order to remain economic, they definitely didnÃ¢â¬â¢t cut any when it came to scale and appearance. Many early civilizations recycled styles andRead MoreComparing Ancient Greek and Ancient Roman Architecture Essay1132 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaround 753 B.C. by the two twins, Romulus and Remus. Romulus ended up killing Remus and built the city of Rome on one of seven rolling hills. Architecture was very important to both civilizations and they were always trying to out due the other. The architectural style of the Ancient Greeks and Romans was overall constructed and used differently. The ancient Greeks developed a system of orders which were known as columns. There were three different types of columns and each had they own special twistRead MoreCultural Context Of The Temple Of Athena1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesUniversity 194 BE Cultural Context Temple Of Hera in the history Discuss the influence of culture to a classic building Liujingya 2016-4-21 6714415 Ã¢â¬Æ' Contents Ã¯ ¬ Introduction Ã¯ ¬ Main body 1. Establishment of the temple 2. Related politics and art 3. Culture development Ã¯ ¬ Conclusion Cultural influence of the temple of Hera It is very clear that ancient buildings can be a part of the evidence to show what happed in the history. As a part of ancient culture, architectural languages haveRead MoreAncient Greece and Its Influence on Western Society Essay928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAncient Greek culture had major influences on todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture; some of these influences include mathematics, government, art and architecture; they even did research in the field of medicine. Many cultures and religions have adapted their ideas from the ancient Greeks. Without the influences of the ancient Greeks our society wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the way it is today. The Greek culture lasted from around 776 BCE to 146 BCE (though it is argued to have begun around 1000 BCE), during this time they inventedRead MoreEssay about Greek and Gothic Architecture948 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGothic Architecture Have you ever noticed the style in the buildings of your city? Well the style comes from an antique type of architecture called gothic architecture. The buildings now days have many developed characteristics from this style. Gothic architecture brought to the world many new features; the most important was the ogival arch, it helped the structure of the buildings and their inside designs. Gothic architecture started when the roman empire declined and the middle ages arose.Read MoreThe Influence of the Greeks and Romans on Architecture894 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIntroduction Ã¢â¬Å"Architecture should speak of its time and place, but yearn for timelessness.Ã¢â¬ (Gehry, 2012). What Frank Gehry was trying to say in simple terms was our culture cannot do without proper appreciation of its classical roots and it goes without saying that the Romans and Greeks have influenced art and architecture with its classical style in a number of different ways. Allow me to give a definition for the word classical. Ã¢â¬Å"ClassicalÃ¢â¬ refers to any art or architecture modelled after ancientRead More Role Model of the West Essay1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesancient Greeks for their many contributions, such as architecture, fine arts, education, philosophy, and mostly for their form of democracy and ways of government. The architecture and fine arts in ancient Greece had proved to be beyond its time. The Greeks talent for architecture and art was and still is irresistible to many artist of today. The spread of this talent moved from the Greeks throughout Europe, especially Ancient Rome and all the way to present day United States. The Greek peopleRead MoreClassical Greek Architecture1848 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Classical Greek Architecture The Ancient Greek population was one of the most powerful civilizations of the world. And the power of the people did not reside particularly in military strength, but more so in the high development of its culture and civilization. The ancient Greeks revealed increased levels of innovation in numerous fields. They for instance focused on sporting activities and other competitions and games; they revered their gods and goddesses and they created new teachings thatRead MoreEssay about Greek and Japanese Architecture865 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGreek and Japanese Architecture For a great many years, architecture has been a breaking point for different artisticeras in history. Some of the most famous Ã¢â¬Å"works of artÃ¢â¬ have been chapels, temples, and tombs. Among the most dominant and influential eras of great architecture are the sophisticated, stoic Greeco-Roman periods and the more mystical, elemental Japanese eras. These two very distinct and very different eras have more in common than you may realize. When work began on theRead MoreGreek And Roman Ideas778 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Greek and Roman Ideals When considering the ancient Greek and Roman ideals you can see the distinct similarities in their art, government, monotheism, and architecture. The Romans duplicated many of the Greek styles and modified them to suit their lifestyles. Greece and Rome influences can be seen in art today with the use of concepts, techniques, and styles that were founded by the Greek classical ideal. These include techniques for carving sculptures and the construction of massive metropolitan
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Virginia WoolfÃ¢â¬â¢s writing pattern is beautifully interwoven in and out of the thoughts of each character. She has the ability to portray random, yet structured working of the mind giving the reader a sense of mental time. The past, present, and future are constantly intertwining, which allows the reader to enter different frames in Mrs. DallowayÃ¢â¬â¢s life in such a short period of time. This method draws a connection with how people think, feel, and dream in all different directions. Instead of following a basic plot, Woolf expresses a certain point of view in Mrs. Dalloway by digging inside the minds of each character. She constantly uses stream of consciousness, which gives insight for the different characters. These moments of memories and present situations allow the reader to develop a full understanding of ClarissaÃ¢â¬â¢s character in only a single day. Woolf successfully illustrates how time can sufficiently reveal oneÃ¢â¬â¢s character, but in particular uses Cla rissa to show that it is impossible to escape the past because of the present reality of time constantly on her shoulders. Woolf presents time in the novel as being sporadic. People tend to imagine time as progressing steadily like a second-hand on a clock, but it is much more than that. Thoughts are constantly being thrown around in the mind making time pass by quickly, slowly, or just makes one freeze in time internally, but not externally. Clarissa arrives at the flower shop in the morning and all of her senses areShow MoreRelatedThe Hours - Film Analysis12007 Words Ã |Ã 49 PagesVirginia Woolfs works as well as to her biography. In this essay, I shall partly yield to the academic itch to tease out the manifold and sophisticated allusions to the numerous intertexts. My aim, however, is not to point out every single reference to Woolf and her works--such an endeavour of source-hunting would fail alone because of the sheer abundance of intertextual references--and to strip The H ours down until its threads lie bare in front of me, but to take the theories of influence (as voiced,Read MoreA Room of Ones Own Essay3982 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesand Five of A Room of One s Own,, the focus on Women Fiction shifts to a consideration of women writers, both actual writers and ultimately one of the author s own creation. The special interest here is one raised earlier in the work: the effect of tradition on women s writing. Woolf believes that women are different from men both in their social history as well as inherently, and that each of these differences has had important effects on the development of women s writing. Women writers
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
People can get away with killing pigeons, cardinals, and blue jays, but it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. A mockingbird wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt anything; itÃ¢â¬â¢s only purpose is to sing songs for the everyday people. Jem and Scout had to restrain from shooting the mockingbirds due to their fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s warning. The novel To Kill a Mockingbird, written by Harper Lee, is written from the view point of a little girl, Scout, in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s during the Great Depression. Her father, Atticus, is assigned a court case where he has to defend an African American that is accused of raping and assaulting a white woman. While her dad is away at work, Scout, her older brother Jem, and summertime friend Dill try to make their mysterious and perhaps dangerous neighbor, Boo Radley, come out of his house. A major theme throughout the novel is loss of innocence. When people lose their innocence it changes their viewpoint on life. It also can cause them to have a sudden realization that can mess with their emotions, which causes them to have a new outlook on life. In To Kill a Mocking Bird, all of the characters lose their innocence one way or another, and it has given them a more mature viewpoint of life. First, Jem lost his innocence, and it made him very troubled. Next, Boo Radley lost his innocence, and it caused him to look out for Scout and Jem. Lastly, Scout lost her innocence, and it caused her to learn that life isnÃ¢â¬â¢t fair. First, Jem lost his innocence when Atticus unfairly lost the court case even though it was clear that he shouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve won. All of the evidence in the case was in TomÃ¢â¬â¢s favor, but since this case took place in the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s down south any jury was going to rule against any black man. Jem didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand that, though. Jem only looked at the facts, not what they look like or the race of Tom. Scout looked at him in the court room when they were receiving the verdict, Ã¢â¬Å"I peaked at Jem: his hands were white from gripping the balcony rail, and his shoulders jerked as if each Ã¢â¬ËguiltyÃ¢â¬â¢ was a separate stab between themÃ¢â¬ (Lee 211). At first, Jem didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why the jury could convict a clearly innocent man. Eventually Jem began to realize that even though all the evidence could be in favor of an African American, the jury is going to rule against him due to the color of their skin because that was the racist mindset down south during the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s. Although Jem understood it, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with it. After the verdict was given he was talking with Miss Maudie Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s like beinÃ¢â¬â¢ a caterpillar in a cocoon, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what it is. Like somethinÃ¢â¬â¢ asleep wrapped up in a warm place. I always thought Maycomb folks were the best folks in the world, least thatÃ¢â¬â¢s what they seemed likeÃ¢â¬ (Lee 288). By Jem coming out of his cocoon he must face the cruelties of reality and abandon the shielded world that Atticus has created for his children, which became a big challenge for him when entering manhood. Jem matured when he learned that people canÃ¢â¬â¢t always get what they want, and the innocent donÃ¢â¬â¢t always prevail. Secondly, Boo lost his innocence when he left the comfort of his house to protect and care for Jem and Scout and when the children realized that he actually exists. All of his life he was locked up inside of his house by his father because in his teenage years he ran into trouble with the law, and his father didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really know what to do with him. The people of Maycomb never heard or saw him so they assumed he was a mysterious freak, dead, or in JemÃ¢â¬â¢s case, Ã¢â¬Å"Boo was about six and a half feet tall, judging from his tracks; he dined on raw squirrels and any cats he could catchÃ¢â¬ ¦ long jagged scar that ran across his faceÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Lee 16). Nobody really knew anything about Boo, causing the children to make wild assumptions that arenÃ¢â¬â¢t true. However, All of Scout and JemÃ¢â¬â¢s life, Boo was looking out for them. After the fire at Miss MaudieÃ¢â¬â¢s house Atticus explained to Scout that, Ã¢â¬Å"Boo Radley. You were so busy looking at the fire you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know it when he put the blanket around youÃ¢â¬ (Lee 96). Boo Radley doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do much, but when he does itÃ¢â¬â¢s a big deal. He usually just locks himself up in the loneliness of his house, so when Scout found out that he was right behind her she made a huge deal about it. Boo always has the best intentions for Jem and Scout and he only leaves the house to watch after them. Boo was continuously leaving little hints for the children to know about his existence. First he was leaving hints with the items he left in the tree for them, then he put the blanket on Scout. Boo is also responsible for saving the lives of Scout and Jem. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you for my children, ArthurÃ¢â¬ (Lee 370). Boo finally revealed himself to the children when he saved them from Bob Ewell trying to kill them. Since Boo grew up with never leaving the house very much, when Boo finally did leave his house he grew up. He would have to deal with a new environment. He matured when he had the courage to leave the house and not be in Ã¢â¬Å"his elementÃ¢â¬ , which would be in the darkness and loneliness of his house. Lastly, Scout lost her innocence when she realized that Boo Radley exists and when she walked him home for the first and final time. Most of ScoutÃ¢â¬â¢s childhood revolved around trying to get Boo to come out of his house, so when she finally met him her childhood was practically over. The big mystery of Boo Radley was solved. Scout even admitted that, Ã¢â¬Å"there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t much else for us to learn, expect possibly algebraÃ¢â¬ (Lee 374). Once she met Boo there wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t really anything else for her to learn because her childhood was focused around getting Boo to come out. Also, when Scout lost her innocence it caused her to step in BooÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes and see/feel from his viewpoint. Ã¢â¬Å"Atticus was right, one time he said you never really know a man until you stand in his shoes and walk around in them. Just standing on the Radley porch was enoughÃ¢â¬ (Lee 374). Scout decided to follow her fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s advice and act like an adult about things. Instead of Scout judging Boo for what heÃ¢â¬â¢s done all these years, she decided to understand what heÃ¢â¬â¢s gone through by stepping in his shoes by standing on his porch and imagine what heÃ¢â¬â¢s seen by looking out his window. She imagined him looking out the front window watching the children and neighborhood do different things throughout each season during the year. This changed her because she realized that someone who never comes out of their house could know everything they ever wanted to by just looking, it made Scout think that Boo was actually a person. A very good person, that is. Scout also realized that no matter how mysterious or creepy a person can seem, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re totally different once you get to know them or take a walk in their shoes. Scout matured when she found out that Boo actually exists and when she acted like an adult and stepped into BooÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes and saw what he saw all these years of watching the children grow up. In conclusion, Jem, Boo, and Scout all matured one way or another when they lost their innocence. Throughout the book, they all encountered many things that caused them to lose their innocence. Jem matured when he lost his innocence by learning that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t always get what you want and the innocent donÃ¢â¬â¢t always prevail. Boo matured when he lost his innocence by leaving his house to protect the children. Lastly, Scout matured when she lost her innocence by learning that Boo actually exists and when she stepped into BooÃ¢â¬â¢s shoes and saw what he saw. Jem and Scout lost their innocence way too soon and Boo lost his innocence late in life. But, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t go through life without losing it and maturing. Losing their innocence gave everyone a more mature outlook on life, it also will affect the rest of their life by how they think and act. No more mockingbirds shall die, just listen to them sing.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
The Likely Manifestations of Terrorist Act Globally Essay The likely manifestations of terrorist act globally Its nature and spread by 2030-2035 Statement of the job: This paper aims to sketch major hereafter tendencies in terrorist act and through this, predict the hereafter of terrorist act with a position to analyze the pendulumic displacement from State sponsored terrorist act, to non-state histrion groups, back towards new province sponsored terrorist act for Radical Militant Islamic Groups ( RMIGs ) . Aims: 1. Show the manifestation of RMIGs off from decentralized leading and back to centralise leading staged from anarchic countries in bing state provinces. 2. Show the menace this poses to the marks of these RMIGs Hypothesis: As military and jurisprudence enforcement forces have begun to take away the safe oasiss for RMIGs, the menace will switch as these groups: settle into anarchic provinces set up their ain authoritiess, inhabit weak provinces by intimidating and corrupting the current authorities to supply sanctuary within the province boundaries, and finally out-breed the current people in non-Islamic provinces past bulk population and so vote in anti-western Islamic provinces with purposes to back up terrorist act. Chapter 1 Introduction The Menace from Terrorism We will write a custom essay sample on The Likely Manifestations of Terrorist Act Globally specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on The Likely Manifestations of Terrorist Act Globally specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on The Likely Manifestations of Terrorist Act Globally specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There are really few worlds in the universe today who have non had their lives altered or affected in some manner through terrorist Acts of the Apostless or the menace from terrorist act. The extremely publicised terrorist onslaughts in the United States, London, Madrid, and Mumbai were seen worldwide and have lead to sweeping alterations in the security positions of many western and developed states, every bit good as to a multi-nation war in Afghanistan. For those that have non felt the direct effects by losing person near to them, there are many life changing after-shocks have had planetary range and therefore have effected about everyone. Every individual who uses public transit, drives in a plane/train, or crosses an international boundary line will experience the effects of international terrorist act through immensely increased security steps. Terrorism has changed foreign policy for many states and has lead to wars. [ 1 ] In all, terrorist act is rewriting the geopolitical ma p as we see it now and in the decennaries to come, will go on to alter the universe as we know it. Extremist Militant Islamic Groups There are many faiths and political cabals that have terrorist cells. In fact, in this twenty-four hours and age, one would be hard pressed to happen a state or faith that does non hold some signifier of cardinal or radicalized terrorist group in its thick. Groups adopting panic find roots in Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism. [ 2 ] This being said, in recent times, the most unsafe menace to western and developed states comes from the Radical Militant Islamic Groups. These Muslim Militants have non merely local and national range, but can project their influence regionally and even globally ( as seen with Al Qaeda and Hezbollah ) , and therefore will be the focal point of this thesis. Switching Littorals: Since as far back as history day of the months, there has been war between peoples. Sometimes these peoples were equally matched, and the conflicts pitted big ground forcess against one another. Yet at other times, the odds were to a great extent in favour of one side, and the lesser of these groups had to fall back to non-traditional warfare to bring down losingss on their enemy. Sometimes these onslaughts were focused on the enemy s military, and sometimes these onslaughts were focused on the people of the enemy state. The enemies could be state vs state or sometimes they were state vs a non-state histrion group. The pendulum has swung back and Forth throughout history as to what is the root of terrorist groups. With the outgrowth of Al Qaeda we have seen that in the present twenty-four hours the non-state histrion terrorist groups have taken centre phase, though this may be about to alter. Attempt to foretell the hereafter This paper engages the chance of foretelling the hereafter of planetary terrorist act. This is achieved by analysing the history of the beginnings and conceptual alterations of terrorist act over old ages past and current tendencies of terrorist act as seen through the informations available from the terrorist act bookmans of today. Though terrorist act is non a wholly Muslim phenomena, this paper will concentrate on terrorist act from Radical Militant Islamic Groups, as this is the most prevailing signifier of terrorist act seen in the present twenty-four hours. It will try to put out the development of terrorist act to give some footing for a reappraisal of the current most of import tendencies in terrorist act. It will discourse the beginnings of ethno-nationalist ( or province sponsored ) terrorist act and farther discourse how this has morphed into the new multinational ( or non-state histrion ) terrorist act of today. Finally the paper will put the phase for the anticipation of a hereafter displacement back to province sponsored terrorist act and sketch the grounds why this is traveling to happen. Chapter II Development of Terrorism Historical Rootss Quotation mark here about terrorist act s history and importance Pre-Modern World: first Century BC to the thirteenth Century The history of terrorist act is every bit old as worlds preparedness to utilize force to impact political relations. A first century Jewish group known as the Sicarii murdered their enemies and Roman confederates in their run to throw out the Roman swayers from their fatherland in Judea. [ 3 ] The Hashhashin, whose name gave us the English word bravos, were a close Islamic religious order active in Iran and Syria from the 11th to the thirteenth century. [ 4 ] Their dramatic blackwashs of rival political figures terrified their coevalss. [ 5 ] Zealots and bravos were non, nevertheless, terrorists in the modern sense. It can be argued that terrorist act is best idea of as a more current phenomenon. Its features stem from the international system of national sovereignty or nation-states, and its success depends on the capableness to keep a loyal dedicated following to transport out operations and the ability to publicise their violent Acts of the Apostless ( or menace of violent Acts of the Apostless ) to distribute fright among the mark people. [ 6 ] 1793: The Origins of Modern Terrorism In 1793, following the Gallic revolution, Maximilien Robespierre instigated a reign of panic on those who opposed the Gallic revolution. [ 7 ] Insert a image of Robespierre with his quotation mark below This reign of panic is conventionally known as the place of birth of the word Terrorism. [ 8 ] ( The term Terror comes from a Latin word intending to scare ) . Robespierre, one of 12 caputs of the new province, viciously had his enemies killed, and installed a absolutism to stabilise the state, warranting his methods as necessary to transform the state into a democratic province, stating: Subdue by terror the enemies of autonomy, and you will be right, as laminitiss of the Republic. [ 9 ] Robespierre s sentiment is the anchor in the beliefs of many modern terrorists, who consider force the best and most efficient manner to acquire to their desired result. As decennaries passed, the classification of terrorist act as a province action has blurred, as the thought of terrorist act as an onslaught against an bing political order became more outstanding. fiftiess: The Rise of Non-State Terrorism Terrorism in the 1950 s got its start from the guerrilla warfare tactics popular with many seditious groups of the clip. This rise of guerilla tactics by non-state histrions in the last half of the 20th century was due to several factors. These included the flowering of cultural patriotism ( e.g. Irish, Basque, Zionist ) , anti-colonial sentiments in the huge British, Gallic and Dutch imperiums, and new political orientations such as communism. In close recent times, terrorist groups with nationalist dockets have sprung up in every portion of the universe. For illustration, the Irish Republican Army grew from the desire of Irish Catholics to organize an independent democracy, and interrupt their ties with Great Britain. [ 10 ] Similarly, the Kurds, a distinguishable cultural and lingual group in Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq, have sought national liberty since the beginning of the twentieth Century. [ 11 ] The Kurdistan Worker s Party ( PKK ) , formed in the 1970s, use terrorist tactics to intimidate the authorities of Turkey and highlight its end of an independent Kurdish province. [ 12 ] The Sri Lankan Liberation Tigers of Tamil, though late brought down by the Sri Lankan Military, used self-destruction bombardment and other deadly tactics to pay a conflict for independency against the Sinhala bulk authorities. [ 13 ] seventiess: The International Turn of Terrorism International terrorist act came to the head as a outstanding issue in the late sixtiess, when highjacking of big airliners became a favorite maneuver. In 1968, the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine became the first group to commandeer an aircraft. [ 14 ] Twenty old ages subsequently, the bombardment of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, shocked the universe. [ 15 ] The epoch besides gave us our contemporary thought of terrorist act as extremely theatrical, symbolic Acts of the Apostless of force, were carried out by organized groups with specific political grudges as was brought out in Munich in 1972. The bloody events at the 1972 Munich Olympics were politically motivated when the Palestinian group Black September, kidnapped and killed Israeli jocks fixing to vie in the games. [ 16 ] Black September s political end was to convey international attending to help in the dialogue for the release of Palestinian captives held by Israel. [ 17 ] The violent Acts of the Apostless in Munich radically changed the universe s ideas on, and handling of, terrorist act, and it was at this point when the footings counter-terrorism and international terrorist act entered the political duologue. [ 18 ] ninetiess: twenty-first Century: The Rise of Religious Terrorism Though an statement can be made that the rise of sacredly motivated terrorist act got its modern twenty-four hours get down in Iran and Afghanistan to counter the political issues of the Shah and the Soviet Union, it came to the head with many extremely seeable A ; violent Acts of the Apostless committed during the 1990 s. Groups that justify their force on Islamic evidences Al Qaeda, Hamas, and Hezbollah semen to mind first. But Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism and other faiths have given rise to their ain signifiers of hawkish extremism. [ 19 ] In recent old ages RMIGs have taken centre phase for their astoundingly violent Acts of the Apostless perpetrated against the people of non-Muslim civilizations. Chapter III Tendencies in Terrorism Quotation mark here about tendencies in terrorist act or past terrorist act or anticipation of terrorist act Major Changes are Ahead There are major alterations coming to terrorist act in the old ages in front. These alterations can be seen from the tendencies of today, and will basically change both the terrorist menace to aim states and the footings on which we must contend the war against RMIGs. The top tendencies that will act upon the alterations in Terrorism Globally are summarized below. Birthrate rates will take Western Countries to come under Islamic regulation In contrast to the underdeveloped universe, many industrialized states are presently, or will shortly, see birthrate rates below the replacing degree and hence important diminutions in populations, excepting the effects of in-migration [ 20 ] . This means the population of developed states will fall from 14 per centum of the entire universe population in 2000, to merely 10 per centum in 2050. [ 21 ] By 2015, the work force in Japan and much of Europe will be shriveling by 1 per centum per twelvemonth. By the 2030s, it will contract by 1.5 per centum yearly. [ 22 ] Militant Islam continues to turn in both rank and power It has been clear for old ages that many Islamic states face terrible jobs with spiritual extremists who are dedicated to progressing their political, societal, and ideological positions by any agencies necessary. [ 23 ] About all of the Muslim lands are overcrowded and short of resources. Many are hapless, salvage for the oil-rich provinces of the Middle East. [ 24 ] Virtually all Islamic states have big unemployed populations of immature work forces, who are often attracted to violent anti-western extremist motions and the chumminess and position that fall ining one of these groups brings. [ 25 ] During its proxy war with the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, the United States extensively equipped the Muslim extremist substructure by providing it with money, weaponries, and, above all, preparation. [ 26 ] We see a similar error today in Iraq as the war in that state has inspired a new coevals of Jihadists, who have been trained and battle-hardened in the turning insurgence. In a now-declassified National Security Estimate, the American intelligence community concluded that Al Qaeda was more powerful in 2007 than it had been before the alleged war on panic began-more unsafe even than it had been when i t planned the onslaughts of September 11, 2001. [ 27 ] The Terrorist Ranks Are Turning The station 9/11 invasion of Afghanistan that lead to the unseating of the Taliban government deprived Al Qaeda of a safe oasis, striking a major blow against the planetary terrorist motion, yet by neglecting to follow up on that success efficaciously, much of the benefit that should hold been gained from that first measure in the war has been lost. Additionally, with the invasion of Iraq, Al Qaeda and its sympathisers now have a new cause around which to beat up their existing forces and, more significantly, enroll new 1s. [ 28 ] As a consequence, the menace from RMIGs is now turning stronger, non weaker. [ 29 ] The grounds that supports this belief is voluminous. Upwards of 30,000 foreign combatants are believed to hold infiltrated into Iraq, where they are now deriving experience and contacts that will function them good in future runs against their western or western supported enemies. [ 30 ] In kernel, Iraq is now functioning the map of the preparation and vetting centre for pla netary terrorist act that Afghanistan provided in the 1980s. [ 31 ] Though the war in Iraq did function to liberate a people from a ruthless dictator, it is now constructing a skilled, disciplined, and good affiliated terrorist cell that will ramify out to the far reaches of the Earth. [ 32 ] At the bosom of the Middle East fundamentalist motion are the wahabists of Saudi Arabia. Saudi Arabia has late been forced to ordain a plan designed to maintain Muslim work forces from traveling to Iraq to pay war against the alliance forces in a planetary jehad. [ 33 ] The Wahhid ( the dominant Muslim religious order in Saudi Arabia ) , has stated that fall ining the jehad is the Muslim adult male s second-greatest responsibility, after traveling to Mecca. [ 34 ] The Wahhid is prophesying that able bodied work forces must contend in Iraq, so that they can return and contend for fundamentalist Islam in Saudi Arabia. [ 35 ] In this manner, the foundation for terrorist cells are built which are independent of Al Qaeda but resolutely committed to the same aims. Examples of this have been seen in the Madrid railroad bombardments which were carried out by a semi-independent terrorist cell based in Morocco whose members cited the invasion of Iraq as one inspiration for their attempts. [ 36 ] In Britain, the London metro bombardments in 2005 were the work of a little, independent set of British citizens inspired by Al Qaeda. [ 37 ] In France and Australia, governments have arrested a figure of Western converts to Islam, many of whom are believed to hold joined Al Qaeda or associated organisations since the invasion of Afghanistan. [ 38 ] A study by Gallic intelligence functionaries estimates that there were between 30,000 and 50,000 such converts, and by deduction, possible terrorists, in France entirely. [ 39 ] It is clear that RMIGs have important understanding among Europe s Muslim population. The Gallic public violences of October and November 2005 affected at least 20 metropoliss in that state, ensuing in 2,888 apprehensions, and touched off lesser force in Belgium, Denmark, Greece, the Netherlands, Spain, and even Switzerland. [ 40 ] Saudi Arabia financess an extended web of spiritual schools, from New York to Pakistan. [ 41 ] Saudi governments have admitted that every bit much as 10 per centum of the course of study in those schools contains material sermon hatred of other faiths, the West, and the United States. [ 42 ] At times, those schools have gone so far as to organize their discourses to present similar anti-Western messages in far-distant venues. In a survey in 2003, Dr. Borik Zadeh, of the Battelle Institute, found that mosques in Ohio, London, Frankfurt, and Paris delivered about indistinguishable discourses in the same hebdomad, the cardinal message of which was blessing of the planetary war against the West. [ 43 ] In Pakistan, where Saudi Arabia s Wahhabi motion supports 1000s of madrassas, the call to jehad is even more ardent. Those schools are enrolling extremists, pumping money and combatants into Iraq and Afghanistan, and methodically constructing a nucleus of extremists that will prosecute the jehad against the West for coevalss to come. [ 44 ] They are most unsafe in their mark countries: Saudi Arabia, Australia, Europe, and to a much lesser extent the United States, which is protected by distance and the much smaller size of its Muslim population. [ 45 ] Persons from Europe and the Middle East are absorbing the extremist credo, traveling to Iraq and larning to contend, and returning to their ain states. France, Great Britain, Denmark, Saudi Arabia, and excessively many other lands are now place to revolutionists with all the rights of citizens. RMIGs Will Gain Access to Weapons of Mass Destruction It must be assumed that tomorrow s terrorists will do every attempt to guarantee that they have more than unconventional sums of conventional explosives with which to do their violent point. [ 46 ] Pakistan s atomic arms are in the custodies of a delicate corrupt authorities surrounded by extremists who view the atomic arms as Islamic Bombs . [ 47 ] Pakistan represents by far the greatest chance for manque atomic terrorists to go atomic terrorists. If Moslem extremists can non derive entree to stolen arms from the former Soviet Republics, they may shortly be able to obtain them from Islamabad. Thankfully, this seems non to be a warrant that terrorists will utilize atomic arms against the possible western marks. RMIGs will most probably receive big, difficult to hide, low-yield devices that will be hard to smuggle to their mark. Though one can be certain that terrorist organisations will seek anyhow, other arms of mass devastation ( WMD ) look to be a much more likely option. Clouds of toxic gas or incompletely weaponized bacteriums could happen their manner into New York City, London or Paris. Even more likely is the chemical arm menace. As the Nipponese cult Aum Shinrikyo, demonstrated in a Tokyo metro in 1995, chemical arms are available to basically anyone who wants them severely plenty to set in a modest attempt to do or purchase them. [ 48 ] The Home Grown menace from Muslim extremists is on the rise A 1994 terrorist act survey by the US Department of Defense predicted that by 2020 a bulk of the universe s most of import Muslim lands could be controlled by extremist spiritual authoritiess. [ 49 ] The West should anticipate more violent and more legion Acts of the Apostless of terrorist act for the following 20+ old ages. [ 50 ] Europe faces a important homegrown Muslim extremist menace right now, and the United States may besides in the following 2-3 decennaries. [ 51 ] Thanks mostly to moving ridges of in-migration since the 1980s and a birth rate that is the highest in the universe, Islam is the fastest-growing faith in the universe, to include both Europe and North America. [ 52 ] Extremist churchmans in Europe are enrolling immature Moslems to the cause of jehad against the places they were born and raised in. [ 53 ] Beyond that, for the first clip, an Islamic state, Pakistan, has atomic arms. As antecedently mentioned, Muslim extremists view this engineering as an Muslim bo mb that could be used to advance their revelatory political orientation, doing atomic terrorist act a realistic menace. This menace will turn as Iraq, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, and other states set up fundamentalist governments that are willing to endorse the cause of jehad against the West. Saudi Arabia is good on the way to be taken over by a fundamentalist government, and to try to prorogue this, the Saud household will go on to supply more support to extremists and enterprise to direct the RMIGs attending to the West. [ 54 ] The overthrow of the Taliban in Afghanistan and the war in Iraq have strengthened the planetary Jihadist motion, given them a preparation land and built up the contacts for future terrorist Acts of the Apostless. The spread between the Have s and the Have Not s will go on to increase The turning spread in wealth between the rich and hapless states looks as if it will further destabilise the universe order, go oning to promote prospective RMIGs in the less developed states to agitate force against the rich in their ain states, or when available against western marks. This lifting spread in wealth within many comfortable states has the possibility to put off discontent among the less well-off, perchance assisting to animate random force and Acts of the Apostless of domestic terrorist act in the West. The turning spread in wealth and income between the rich and the hapless besides may animate transition to Islam in the West, chiefly among the underprivileged. As seen in England and Australia, this can be a beginning of violent extremism among both immigrant and native populations. [ 55 ] Population growing is highest in those states least able to back up the growing The greatest birthrate rates are found in those states least able to back up their existing populations: the largest population additions projected between 2000 and 2050 include the Palestinian Territory ( 217 per centum ) , Niger ( 205 per centum ) , Yemen ( 168 per centum ) , Angola ( 162 per centum ) , the Democratic Republic of Congo ( 161 per centum ) , and Uganda ( 133 per centum ) . [ 56 ] The Muslim universe is reproducing at an highly high rate, with birthrate rates of 7.5 in Afghanistan, 6.0 in Yemen, and 4.9 in Iraq. [ 57 ] Harmonizing to the Center for Strategic International Studies ( CSIS ) , of the jutting 2.7 billion more people in the universe in 2050, approximately 40 per centum will populate in sub-Saharan Africa and 30 per centum in the Muslim universe. [ 58 ] Even these estimations appear to be on the low side. Harmonizing to CSIS, most official projections underestimate both the birthrate rates and age of mortality, every bit good as doing the premise that life anticipation will turn more easy in the hereafter, which seems improbable as universe health care merely continues to acquire better. Turning Western prosperity relative to other states with quickly turning populations and bowed down economic systems will go on to do the developed states a mark for terrorist act. Deficits of nutrient could assist to actuate extremism unless the industrialised states make a determined, seeable attempt to supply for the universe s hapless. ( As much nutrient will necessitate to be produced in the following 40 old ages as has been produced in the universe since the morning of clip ) . [ 59 ] Urbanization, will go on to increase quickly Harmonizing to the Population Reference Bureau s 2006 World Population Data Sheet, Forty-eight per centum of the universe s population presently lives in metropoliss. By 2030 that figure is expected to turn to 60 per centum, as about 2.1 billion more people move to the universe s urban centres. [ 60 ] In industrialised states, on norm, more than three-quarterss of the population lives in metropoliss. [ 61 ] In North America, urbanisation is the highest at 79 per centum, but metropoliss are turning fastest in the underdeveloped states of the universe. [ 62 ] By 2015, at the current growing rate, there are estimated to be 59 megacities in the universe ( metropoliss with over 5 million people ) , 48 of them in less developed states. [ 63 ] Of these, 23 will hold populations over 10 million, all but four in the development lands. [ 64 ] Right now, there are about 1 billion people who live in urban countries who lack equal clean H2O, shelter, lavatories and hygiene countries, and/or electricity. [ 65 ] The jobs this raises with mention to offense, force, and spiritual extremism is readily evident. Concentrating the hapless, laden and powerless in big cloistral urban centres produces conditions ideal for the spread of offense and the type of spiritual extremism that lends itself to viol ent political orientations. Chapter IV Old Terrorism Quotation mark about province sponsored terrorist act Old Terrorism Ethno-nationalist or Ideological, and province sponsored Is there a difference between terrorist act and legitimate tactics used by governments that exploit fright and panic? States frequently resort to force to act upon sections of their population, or rely on coercive facets of province establishments. [ 66 ] There are those who equate any usage of authorities power directed at the population, in any signifier, as terrorist act, but this point of view blurs what should and should non be considered terrorist act, as it elevates the result over the purpose. Suppression of a public violence by jurisprudence enforcement forces may in fact expose some of the population ( the rioters and some guiltless looker-ons ) to force and fright, but with the purpose to protect the larger civil order. On the other manus, maltreatment of the right of legitimized force by the governments is a offense. Governments will, at times, involve themselves in terrorist act to carry through their aims or transport out the desires of single swayers. Internal security forces can utilize panic to assistance in quashing dissent, and intelligence or military organisations may execute Acts of the Apostless designed to do panic to foster a province s policies. A authorities that is an antagonist of Country B may use panic tactics in an attempt to do up for existent or sensed insufficiencies in conventional warfare capablenesss. Repression through panic of the autochthonal population of their ain state would take topographic point to forestall internal dissent and rebellion that Country B might work. Particular Operations forces, paramilitary forces and province intelligence assets could carry on terrorist operations against Country B involvements both inter-regionally and as far abroad as their capablenesss allow to destabilise Country B and convey coveted visibleness to the sponsoring authorities s issues. Finally, onslaughts on Country B on their place dirt could be executed by province sponsored terrorist organisations or by domestic placeholders. This is being seen today in Iraq with the Persian engagement to destabilise Iraq and kill alliance military mans, every bit good as Pakistan s attempts to destabilise the Jammu and Kashmi r part of India. The four different ways that provinces can prosecute in the usage of panic Governmental or State panic State engagement in panic State sponsorship of terrorist act Turning a blind oculus to the harboring/funding of panic groups in their boundary lines Governmental or State panic Governmental or State panic is usually seen when a authorities terrorizes its ain population to command or quash them. These actions are about ever with the cognition of the authorities and are portion of the policy ( written or unwritten ) of the authorities. They will do usage of official organic structures such as the armed forces, constabulary, intelligence, bench or other authorities bureaus. Changes can be made to the legal system which license or promote violent death, anguish, or belongings confiscation/destruction in chase of governmental desires. As an illustration of this, after presuming power, official Nazi policy was aimed at the deliberate devastation of province enemies ( viz. the Jewish community ) taking to the ensuing bullying of the remainder of the population. [ 67 ] Stalin s purges of the 1930s is a farther illustration of prosecuting the machinery of the province to terrorise an full population. The methods he used included such actions as trials of his o ppositions who were found guilty of some trumped up charge, penalizing household or friends of suspected enemies of the government, and utmost extra-legal usage of constabulary or military force against the population. [ 68 ] In more recent times, Saddam Hussein used chemical arms on the Kurdish population of Iraq. [ 69 ] These arms were non used against the bulk Muslim population in the southern 2/3 of Iraq, where he accomplished his ends utilizing conventional province panic methods. State engagement in panic State engagement in panic includes the activities where authorities forces execute operations utilizing panic tactics that are directed against other states involvements, persons or private groups that have opposing or controversial opinions/actions viewed as counter to that of the province. In kernel, it is terrorist act under official countenance, although such mandate is seldom acknowledged openly. Historical illustrations include the Soviet and Persian blackwash runs against dissenters who had fled abroad, and the North Korean and Libyan intelligence secret agents blowing up international airliners. [ 70 ] Another type of State engagement in panic are the decease squads or personal ground forces s used for unofficial actions taken by province functionaries or lesser ranking members of a government ( such as members of constabulary or intelligence organisations ) against their ain population to quash or intimidate. While these functionaries do non claim the executing of such act ivities, and in fact usually seek to mask their engagement, it is frequently clear that they are moving with province consent. Keeping such activities unofficial permits the governments to keep a degree of plausible deniability and avoids the necessity of altering legal and judicial procedures to warrant subjugation, therefore denying the international community a bridgehead to step in. A farther signifier of province engagement in panic is pro-state panic, which is conducted by groups or individuals with no official standing and without official encouragement. While pro-state panic may ensue in positive results for the governments, their employment of condemnable methods ( normally violent ) and deficiency of official standing in governmental processs can ensue in disclaimer and penalty of the terrorists, depending on the morality of the government in inquiry. State sponsorship of terrorist act State sponsorship of terrorist act, besides referred to as province supported terrorist act, represents a state of affairs when authoritiess provide supplies, preparation, and other signifiers of support to non-state terrorist organisations. One of the most fruitful facets of this support is the providing of safe oasiss for terrorists organisations. [ 71 ] These safe oasiss give the terrorist leading a opportunity to be after, develop and decently fit their overzealous cells. [ 72 ] Another critical service a province patron can supply to terrorist organisati
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Housing Problems and Options for Improvement essays Everyone needs a house. Rich people poor people; all people are included. This is a problem, because housing costs a great deal of money. Poor people that can barely afford food and clothing also have a difficult time finding affordable housing. As a result, some live in unsafe and unsanitary conditions that are badly in need of repair. As we read in several Los Angeles Times articles, there are many people here in the Valley that live in places like these, and that live way below the poverty line. Many of these unkempt dwellings reside in the inner city of large urban areas, such as Los Angeles, Philadelphia or Chicago. According to our textbook, Urban Economics, (page 338) Poverty rates in the central city are about two times higher then the poverty rates for suburban areas. In some metropolitan areas, the differences in poverty rates are even higher. Poor people reside in the central city for two different reasons, according to discussions on various economic models from lecture. First, the farther away that you get from the central business district, the higher your transportation costs to get to your job (assuming that the job is located in the CBD). If you can not afford to commute to your work, you will be unable to keep your job, making you worse off economically. Therefore, you would chose to locate your residence close to your place of employment (closer to the CBD) in order to reduce your transportation costs. IF you live close enough to your place of employment, you may not need to use any form of transportation other then your feet, which doesnt cost you anything but your time. The second reason has to do with where new houses are built. New homes are built on land that was previously undeveloped, usually located on the outer edge of the residential district, furthest away from the central business district. The wealthiest people move into these new homes, leaving the upper middle class to move ...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Financial Management in Nonprofit Organizations - Research Paper Example In fact, such regulative provisions aim to ensure that the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s funds are properly used for the stated purpose. As compared to for-profit organizations, a nonprofit enterprise is not allowed to keep huge amount of surpluses with it. Since a nonprofit organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s financial management is not liable to take any level of risk, it can operate freely with greater degree of certainty. In contrast, for-profit organizations bear some levels of business risks including debt financing. Generally, both nonprofit organizations and for-profit organizations use the incremental budgeting technique. Undoubtedly, restricted financial management operations can reduce nonprofit organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ probability of failure. Introduction The term financial management simply refers to the process of planning toward the future of an individual or a business organization so as to ensure a positive inflow and outflow of cash. To be more specific, Ã¢â¬Å"financial management pertains to the optimal sourcing and utilization of financial resources of a business enterpriseÃ¢â¬ ; and the two key processes including resource management and finance operations constitute this process (Sofat & Hiro, 2011, p.20). Theoretical frameworks suggest that the application of financial management techniques in non-profit organizations is entirely different from its application in for-profit organizations. This paper will discuss the financial management practices in nonprofit organization. It will also compare and contrast the applications of financial management techniques in nonprofit organizations with that of for-profit organizations. Core Concepts of Financial Management Core concepts of financial management encompass capital budgeting, cash management, cost of capital, capital structure planning, and dividend policy. Capital budgeting is a financial tool used to analyze whether an organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s long term investments like new plants, machinery, research and develo pment projects, and other new products are worth pursuing. Cash management activities try to maintain an effective balance between inflow and outflow of cash. From the management view point, cost of capital represents the cost of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s funds including debt and equity. The concept of capital structure refers to the way an organization uses particular combinations of Ã¢â¬Ëequity, debt, and hybrid securitiesÃ¢â¬â¢. Dividend policy refers to a strategic measure that an organization uses to decide the level of returns to be paid to its shareholders. The application of these financial management concepts depends on a number of factors in addition to the size and nature of the organization. Among them, the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s efficacy in applying these concepts is vital in order to exercise a control over the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s future cash flows. Therefore, firms usually establish separate finance departments so as to deal with their day to day financial operations. Financial Ma nagement in Nonprofit Organizations Unlike for-profit organizations, the pÃ rimary goal of a nonprofit organization is not shareholder value maximization; instead, it intends to meet specific socially desirable needs. As Griswold and Jarvis (2011) point out, nonprofit organizations lack financial flexibility as such institutions heavily depend on resource providers that are not engaged in exchange transaction. The resources provided are